2009-12-17 13:39:48作者:佚名来源:本站原创

  非谓语形式有三种:1、动词不定式:to do 2、动词的ing : doing 3、 动词的过去分词:done


一般式 完成式 进行式
不定式 主动 to do to have done to be doing
被动 to be dong to have been done
ing 形式 主动 doing having done
被动 being done having been done
过去分词 被动 done

在非谓语动词前加not, never. 即 not / never to do, not / never doing

不定式的复合结构:for / of sb. to do sth.
动词 ing 形式的复合结构:宾格或所有格+doing (-ing 形式作主语时,用的所有格+doing)

4、判断时间关系。方法:分析句子,看看非谓语动词所表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前、之后还是同时。之前常用 done; 之后常用to do; 同时常用doing。


a. 不定式表示一次性的、具体的动词。 动词ing 常表示一般的、泛指的或习惯性的动作。如:
________ is a good form of exercise for both young and old.
A. The walk B. Walking C. To walk D. Walk
(分析) a good form 暗示泛指一般的行为,用动名词作主语,选 B
b. 不定式作主语时,常用it 作形式主语,即用句型:It is + adj. / n. + (for / of sb. ) to do sth.
It’s important for us to learn English well.
It’s kind of you to help us.
 It’s no good / use doing sth.
It’s useless doing sth.
There is no need to do sth.

My job is teaching / to teach English. (teaching / to teach English 是my job的内容)
Knowing who we are means knowing what we like to do. (主表语要用同一种形式)
记住:一些表示情感、情绪的动词,常用分词形式作表语。现在分词表示主语的性质特征,用过去分词表示主语的状态。常用动词:surprise (使某人吃惊), surprising (令人吃惊), surprised (主语)感到吃惊)类似动词有:excite (激动),astonish (惊奇),shock (震惊),scare (惊恐), disappoint (失望),move (感动),
如:The movie is exciting. We are excited at the news.
c、在seem / appear (似乎,好像), prove / turn out (被证明是), remain (仍然是,尚待)等连系动词后,可用不定式作表语。如: He seemed (to be ) very happy.
Having a trip abroad is good for the old couple, but it remains ______ whether they will enjoy it. (to be seen)

a.(想要)want, would like, would prefer, ask, demand, intend, desire,
b.(希望)  wish, hope, expect,
c.(决定)agree, decide, manage, promise, choose, continue, plan, prepare, make up one’s mind, try one’s best, offer, apply,
d.happen, learn, fail, pretend, refuse, afford
suggest, advise(建议), finish, mind(介意),enjoy (喜欢),appreciate (鉴赏,感激),forbid禁止),avoid (避免),can’t help doing (忍不住),risk (冒险),feel like (想要),delay, put off (推迟),give up (放弃),be busy (忙于),be worth (值得),practise (反复练习),
remember to do 记得去做, remember doing 记得做过 forget to do 忘记去做, forget doing 忘记做过了, regret to do 遗憾去做,regret doing 后悔做过, try to do 设法去做,try doing 试着做, go on to do 接着做另一件事,go on doing 继续做同一件事,
mean to do 打算做,mean doing 意味着做, stop to do 停下来去做,stop doing 停止做,cant help (to) do 不能帮助做,can’t help doing 忍不住做。
如:In some parts of London, missing a bus means ____ for another hour.
A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting A
4、表示未实现的愿望的动词, 即表示本打算、想做,但事实上没做
这些动词 plan, intend, mean, want, hope, wish, expect , 用 had planned to do sth. / planned to have done 来表示。Would like / love 只用would like to have done
如:I would love _____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish the report.
A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone B
  prevent / stop / keep sb. / sth from doing …(阻止…做)
 spend / waste time / money in doing sth. 在…花费或浪费时间或钱
 how about / what about doing
have some difficulty / trouble / problems in doing 在做… 有困难
 have a hard / good time in doing 做… 很艰难或做…很愉快
 There is no sense / point in doing
6、含介词to 的短语
look forward to 盼望,devote…to 致力于、献身于,be / get used to 习惯于, lead to 导致,get down to 着手做,pay attention to 注意,refer to 谈到,所指,参考,equal to 等于,能胜任,belong to 属于
如:Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to ___ some school for poor children.
A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up
7、介词but (除了)后接不定式:
如:have no choice but to do sth. 没有别的选择 只好做…
但当but 前有形为动词 do 时,but 后的不定式省to. 如:
Sandy could do nothing but ____ to his teacher that he was wrong.
A. admit B. admitted C. admitting D. to admit A
8.permit / allow (允许),advise (建议),forbid (禁止),有两种用法:一是后接动名词,二是后接“sb. + to do sth”
9、need, want, require 意为“需要”,主语是物时,用句型:
need, want, require + doing  (用动词ing 主动形式表被动意义)
to be done

  1、不定式作宾语补足语,如:ask sb to do sth (sb作宾语,to do sth作宾补,宾语+宾补=复合宾语)
类似动词有:invite, tell, want, encourage, advise, order, requir, foce, beg, cause, allow, permit, forbid(禁止), warn(警告), remind, teach, call on (号召),depend on (指望),would like / love (想要),prefer, wish, expect, (hope 不带复合宾语) 注:help sb (to) do sth.
  let / make / have sb do sth. 但使役动词的被动语态常用:be made to do sth.
注:get sb to do sth. 也译成“让某人做…
Though he had often made his little sister ____, today he was made ____ by his little sister.
A. cry, to cry B. crying, crying C. cry, cry D. to cry, cry
感官动词:feel, see, hear, watch, notice
句型:感官动词+sb + do / doing / done (分别表示全过程、正在发生、被动完成)
1) They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood.
A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow A
2) The missing boy was last seen ____ near the river.
A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play A

4、with 的复合结构:with +宾+宾补。作宾补的词可以是:形容词、副词(in, out),介词短语,非谓语形式)。With 的复合结构的宾补中的非谓语形式 to do 表示将来,doing 表示主动和进行,done表示被动和完成。
The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back.
A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied D
5、have 句型:have sb do sth, have sb/ sth doing, have sb /sth done
have sth done 表示两种意义:请别人做,而不是主语做;意外事故引起的。
如:He didn’t keep on asking me the time any longer as he had had his watch ______.
A. to repair B. repaired C. repairing D. repair B
6、find + 宾语 + 宾补(doing / done), keep +宾+doing, catch sb + doing (撞见某人在做),smell sb +doing (察觉到某人在做)
He looked around and caught a man ____ his hand into the pocket of a passager.
A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting D
7、表示“认为”的 think, believe, consider, judge 等,常用句型:think sb (to be )+ adj. / n. , be considered to have done sth. 被认为已做了某事
8、make oneself understood / heard / known , 即用了过去分词作作宾补
9、句型 It is said / reported / thought / known that…. 可变成:sb / sth be said / reported to have done sth.
如:Robert is said ___ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in.
A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying A

a.作目的状语:有三种形式,可互换:to do, in order to do, so as to do (不用于句首)
b.原因:不定式常放在表示情绪反应的形容词后。如:happy, sorry, glad, sad, surpried, disappointed. 不定式不放在句首。
如:I am sorry to hear that your father is ill.
c. 结果:常用 only to do…来表示末曾预料到或令人不快的情况,其动作发生在谓语动作之后。另外 固定结构:too… to do, enough to do, so / such… as to do 中,不定式也作结果状语。
d.在形容词后作状语,只用不定式 如:
The book is easy to read. (=It is easy to read the book.)
We find the lake safe to swim in. (注意尾介词)
  2、现在分词、过去分词可作时间、条件、让步、方式、原因、结果状语,就不作目的状语。注:表示时间、条件或让步的分词,有时可带上连词(if, unless, when, while, once(一旦) though, although)
1)_____ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player.
A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given D
2)I won’t attend his wedding _____ .
A. unless invited B. if invited C. unless inviting



  1、不定式作定语 常表示“用…要做”和“修饰the +序数词”。常用句型:
 have / there be… / with +宾语+ to do
分析:以 I have homework to do. 为例:不定式作定语有两种关系:
a.主谓关系:I do homework
b.动宾关系:to do 与 homework 构成动宾关系
注意:以 Jack, do you have some clothes _______?
A. to wash B. to be washed 为例:
分析:(1)动宾关系:wash clothes 成立;(2)主谓关系:You wash clothes成立吗?根据句意,显然不是。这里的洗衣服是说话做,而不是句子的主语you. 所以只能用不定式的被动式,选B。
如:1)He gave me a book to read.
2)There are five pairs ____, but I’m at a loss which to choose.
A. to be chosen B. to choose from C. to choose D. for choosing B
3)There are always people to ____ if you feel like a chat.
A. talk to B. talk C. speak about D. speak A
(to talk 要与people构成动宾关系,要用短语 talk to / with sb)
(1)They made efforts to bring stolen cultural relics back to China. (过去分词表被动和完成)
(2) I want to write about people addicted to drugs.
a sleeping boy (= a boy who is sleeping); a swimming pool (= a pool for swimming)
falling leaves (leaves that are falling); fallen leaves (leaves that have fallen down)
a developing country (发展中国家);a developed country (发达国家)
3、to be done, being done, done 作定语的区别
这三个都表示被动,就是时间不同。To be done 表将来,being done 表同时进行,done表完成。注意:having been done 也表完成被动,但不用作定语。

1)Why not do sth?=Why don’t you do sth?
2)had better (not) do sth. 最好做
3)would rather (not) do sth. 宁愿做
4)woud do… rather than do… = would rather do… than do…= prefer to do …. rather than do…= prefer doing… to doing… 宁愿做…. 而不愿做

八、疑问词+不定式 结构
1)what / which to do (what / which 作do 的逻辑宾语,what意为“什么”,which “表示选择”
2)when / where / how to do sth.
3)whether to do sth. (不用if)
4)why (not) do sth. (why后省去to)
如:A reporter must know how to ask the right questions and how to get people to talk about the topic. (作宾语)

judging from / by…, generally speaking, strictly speaking
to tell you the truth, to make things worse, to begin / start with
3)动词原形: Believe it or not (信不信由你)
4)作连词的分词considering (考虑到,就…而言),providing / provided …假如, supposing 假如   这些词用来表示条件的连词,后接that 从句。